Before the discovery of Hispaniola the island that is now Haiti and the Dominican Republic by Christopher Columbus, there was a thriving civilization of native Americans, known as the Arawak-speaking Taino Indians. The arrival of Columbus and European colonialism brought disease, slavery, misery and death. They were soon wiped out from the island and black slave labor from Africa was needed to replace them. What was thought of as a rich and profitable Western colony, Haiti today is the poorest country in the western hemisphere.
Anthony Ashley-Cooper then spelt Ashley Cooper1st Earl of Shaftesburypainted more than once during his chancellorship in by John Greenhill Under Lord Shaftesbury's leadership, the Whigs in the Parliament of England wished to exclude the Duke of York who later became King James II from the throne due to his Roman Catholicism, his favouring of monarchical absolutism, and his connections to France.
They believed the heir presumptive, if allowed to inherit the throne, would endanger the Protestant religion, liberty and property. In response, King Charles prorogued Parliament and then dissolved it, but the subsequent elections in August and September saw the Whigs' strength increase.
This new parliament did not meet for thirteen months, because Charles wanted to give passions a chance to die down. When it met in Octoberan Exclusion Bill was introduced and passed in the Commons without major resistance, but was rejected in the Lords.
Charles dissolved Parliament in Januarybut the How successful were the liberal government did not suffer serious losses in the ensuing election. The next Parliament first met in March at Oxford, but Charles dissolved it after only a few days, when he made an appeal to the country against the Whigs and determined to rule without Parliament.
Without Parliament, the Whigs gradually crumbled, mainly due to government repression following the discovery of the Rye House Plot. His early ministry was largely Tory, but gradually the government came to be dominated by the so-called Junto Whigsa group of younger Whig politicians who led a tightly organised political grouping.
The increasing dominance of the Junto led to a split among the Whigs, with the so-called "Country Whigs" seeing the Junto as betraying their principles for office. The Country Whigs, led by Robert Harleygradually merged with the Tory opposition in the later s.
However, as the War of the Spanish Succession went on and became less and less popular with the Tories, Marlborough and Godolphin were forced to rely more and more on the Junto Whigs, so that by they headed an administration of the Parliament of Great Britain dominated by the Junto.
Anne herself grew increasingly uncomfortable with this dependence on the Whigs, especially as her personal relationship with the Duchess of Marlborough deteriorated.
This situation also became increasingly uncomfortable to many of the non-Junto Whigs, led by the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of Shrewsburywho began to intrigue with Robert Harley's Tories.
In the spring ofAnne dismissed Godolphin and the Junto ministers, replacing them with Tories. The Tory administration led by Harley and the Viscount Bolingbroke persuaded the Queen to create twelve new Tory peers to force the treaty through.
Whiggism The Whigs primarily advocated the supremacy of Parliament, while calling for the toleration for Protestant dissenters.
They adamantly opposed a Catholic as king. As Wilson and Reill note: In his great DictionaryJohnson defined a Tory as "one who adheres to the ancient Constitution of the state and the apostolical hierarchy of the Church of England, opposed to a Whig". He linked 18th-century Whiggism with 17th-century revolutionary Puritanism, arguing that the Whigs of his day were similarly inimical to the established order of church and state.
Johnson recommended that strict uniformity in religious externals was the best antidote to the objectionable religious traits that he linked to Whiggism.
The Whigs claimed that trade with France was bad for England and developed an economic theory of overbalance, that is a deficit of trade with France was bad because it would enrich France at England's expense.
The economic historian William Ashley claimed that this Act witnessed the "real starting-point in the history of Whig policy in the matter of trade". When the Tory Lord Bolingbroke proposed a commercial treaty with France in that would lead to freer trade the Whigs were vehemently against it and it had to be abandoned.
All of the Whig leaders attacked this on traditional Whig anti-French and protectionist grounds. Fox claimed that France was England's natural enemy and that it was only at Britain's expense that she could grow.
The Jacobite rising of discredited much of the Tory party as treasonous Jacobitesand the Septennial Act ensured that the Whigs became the dominant party. Between andthe Tories died out as an active political force, but always retained a considerable presence in the House of Commons.
The governments of Robert WalpoleHenry Pelham and his older brother the Duke of Newcastle dominated between and with a brief break during the also-Whig Carteret ministry.
The leading entities in these governments consistently referred to themselves as "Whigs".Meet your Liberal Member of Parliament. Gary Anandasangaree is the Member of Parliament for the riding of Scarborough-Rouge Park, and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Heritage and Multiculturalism (Multiculturalism).
How successful were the Liberal governments, in the years to , in bringing about political and constitutional reform? (24 marks) Hand in Tuesday 29th October. How successful were the political and constitutional reforms proposed by the Liberals? In groups discuss the findings in your notes from last lesson.
Social welfare measures such as these were first enacted by the decidely nonliberal government of Otto von Bismarck in Germany in the late 19th century, but liberal governments soon adopted them in other countries of northern and western Europe. It could be argued that the Liberal government were extremely successful in bringing about political and constitutional reform due to the passing of the Parliament Bill, which overall helped make the constitution more democratic.
As well as the triumphant Payment of MPs act in As Blinkhorn argues, the liberal themes were ascendant in terms of "cultural pluralism, religious and ethnic toleration, national self-determination, free market economics, representative and responsible government, free trade, unionism, and the peaceful settlement of international disputes through a new body, the League of Nations".
How successful were the Liberal government in years in bringing about political and institutional reform (24) The Liberal government of under Bannerman and Asquith is one often recalled for its extensive reform of the welfare system in the United Kingdom.