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History[ edit ] The halo effect was named by psychologist Edward Thorndike in reference to a person being perceived as having a halo. Subsequent researchers have studied it in relation to attractiveness and its bearing on the judicial and educational systems.
Thorndike's study showed how there was too great a correlation in the commanding officers' responses. In his review he stated: For example, for the three raters next studied[,] the average correlation for physique with intelligence is.
If an officer had a particular "negative" attribute given off to the commanding officer, it would correlate in the rest of that soldier's results. Cognitive bias[ edit ] The term "halo" is used in analogy with the religious concept: The observer may be subject to overestimating the worth of the observed by the presence of a quality that adds light on the whole like a halo.
In other words, observers tend to bend their judgement according to one patent characteristic of the person the "halo"generalizing towards a judgement of that person's character e.
The effect works in both positive and negative directions and is hence sometimes called the horns and halo effect.
If the observer likes one aspect of something, they will have a positive predisposition toward everything about it. If the observer dislikes one aspect of something, they will have a negative predisposition toward everything about it.
Attractiveness provides a valuable aspect of the halo effect to consider because of its multifaceted nature; attractiveness may be influenced by several specific traits. Physical attributes contribute to perceptions of attractiveness e. For example, someone who is perceived as attractive, due in part to physical traits, may be more likely to be perceived as kind or intelligent.
The role of attractiveness in producing the halo effect has been illustrated through a number of studies. Recent research, for example, has revealed that attractiveness may affect perceptions tied to life success and personality.
Included in the personality variables were trustworthiness and friendliness.
What this suggests is that perceptions of attractiveness may influence a variety of other traits, which supports the concept of the halo effect.
Sixty students, thirty male and thirty female from the University of Minnesota took part in the experiment. Each subject was given three different photos to examine: Participants were then asked to predict the overall happiness the photos' subjects would feel for the rest of their lives, including marital happiness least likely to get divorcedparental happiness most likely to be a good parentsocial and professional happiness most likely to experience life fulfillmentand overall happiness.
Finally, participants were asked if the subjects would hold a job of high status, medium status, or low status. Participants also believed that attractive individuals would lead happier lives in general, have happier marriages, and have more career success than the others.
Also, results showed that attractive people were believed to be more likely to hold secure, prestigious jobs compared to unattractive individuals.
Participants however believed that attractive individuals would be worse parents than both average attractive and unattractive individuals. Sixty male undergraduate students rated the quality of essays which included both well and poorly written samples.
One third were presented with a photo of an attractive female as author, another third with that of an unattractive female as author, and the last third were shown neither.
In average most of the participants gave significantly better writing evaluations for the more attractive author. On a scale of 1 to 9, the well-written essay by the attractive author received an average of 6. The gap was larger on the poor essay:The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Other Writing. Cause and Effect: In this type of writing, you have to give the cause of a problem or situation and to describe the results. Problem and Solution: intro, one paragraph for the problems, one for the solutions, conclusion).
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Lowest prices, first-rate place and eagerness to work on any type, topic, page count or level of assignment you want. Download and print a persuasive essay graphic organizer below. Use it to plan and prepare the content of your essay. Writing an introduction. For this exercise, I first got students to tell me what they found confusing about introductions.
We listed their “things we want to know” about introductions on the board first. Study results showing the influence of the halo effect in the judicial context exist: Efran () found subjects were more lenient when sentencing attractive individuals than unattractive ones, even though exactly the same crime was committed.
The researchers attributed the result to a societal perception that people with a high level of attractiveness are seen as more likely to have.