The past is frustratingly hard to pin down. It seems that the more we examine a historical event, the more any pleasing neatness of it simply having taken place falls away, and a chaos of complex and competing causes begins to cry out for our attention.
Vitruvius described the human figure as being like the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquityat first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance humanism is contemporary to that period— Renaissance rinascimento, "rebirth" and "humanist" whence modern humanism; also Renaissance humanism to distinguish it from later developments grouped as humanism.
This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatistoday known as the humanities: According to one scholar of the movement, Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Agesnot merely provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name Studia humanitatisbut also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.
The studia humanitatis excluded logic, but they added to the traditional grammar and rhetoric not only history, Greekand moral philosophy, but also made poetry, once a sequel of grammar and rhetoric, the most important member of the whole group. Origin Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscriptsincluding PetrarchGiovanni BoccaccioColuccio Salutatiand Poggio Bracciolini.
Of the four, Niccolo machiavelli and desiderius erasmus two styles huma was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls.
Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orderslike Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutatithe Chancellor of Florence. In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the midth century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations, possibly in addition to traditional scholasticist ones.
Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Such was Cardinal Basilios Bessariona convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxywho was considered for the papacyand was one of the most learned scholars of his time.
Italian humanism spread northward to FranceGermanythe Low Countriesand England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula or books printed prior toand it became associated with the Protestant Reformation. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance.
Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, talents, worries, problems, possibilities—was the center of interest. It has been said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, but, bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full stature.
Infor example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of LucretiusDe rerum naturawhich had been lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrinethough at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax.
And if it is names that bother us, no one better deserves the name of Epicurean than the revered founder and head of the Christian philosophy Christfor in Greek epikouros means "helper.
Completely mistaken, therefore, are those who talk in their foolish fashion about Christ's having been sad and gloomy in character and calling upon us to follow a dismal mode of life. On the contrary, he alone shows the most enjoyable life of all and the one most full of true pleasure.
Renaissance Neo-Platonists such as Marsilio Ficino whose translations of Plato's works into Latin were still used into the 19th century attempted to reconcile Platonism with Christianity, according to the suggestions of early Church fathers Lactantius and Saint Augustine.
In this spirit, Pico della Mirandola attempted to construct a syncretism of all religions he was not a humanist but an Aristotelian trained in Parisbut his work did not win favor with the church authorities. Historian Steven Kreis expresses a widespread view derived from the 19th-century Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardtwhen he writes that: The period from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth worked in favor of the general emancipation of the individual.
The city-states of northern Italy had come into contact with the diverse customs of the East, and gradually permitted expression in matters of taste and dress. The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression.
In the essays of Montaigne the individualistic view of life received perhaps the most persuasive and eloquent statement in the history of literature and philosophy. Of these two, Hermeticism has had great continuing influence in Western thought, while the former mostly dissipated as an intellectual trend, leading to movements in Western esotericism such as Theosophy and New Age thinking.
Though humanists continued to use their scholarship in the service of the church into the middle of the sixteenth century and beyond, the sharply confrontational religious atmosphere following the Protestant reformation resulted in the Counter-Reformation that sought to silence challenges to Catholic theology , with similar efforts among the Protestant denominations.
However, a number of humanists joined the Reformation movement and took over leadership functions, for example, Philipp MelanchthonUlrich ZwingliJohn Calvinand William Tyndale. With the Counter Reformation initiated by the Council of Trentpositions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy based on Scholastic philosophy was imposed.
Some humanists, even moderate Catholics such as Erasmus, risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the church.Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, Northern European figures such as Desiderius Erasmus, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, William Grocyn, Two noteworthy trends in Renaissance humanism were Renaissance Neo .
Country Bass - A Guide to the Essential Styles and Techniques, Desiderius Erasmus, T. Paynell MVS JCL and Utilities - A Comprehensive X Young People's Messiah - A Sequence of Movements Arranged for Two-Part Voices and Organ or Piano, George Frideric Handel.
Francesco Petrarch was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". Petrarch's sonnets were admired and.
Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince In ‘The Prince’, Niccolo Machiavelli approaches, the topic of political morality and human nature in a very different way than thinkers preceding him. His argument on political morality and human nature is made very clear in the early part of his book.
Even the means-justifies -the -ends philosopher par excellence Niccolo Machiavelli actually claimed that war occurs “not because man was evil but beca use of malign fate harmonious human society are the benign words of the philosopher Desiderius Erasmus fee for specific styles and techniques for note taking.
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